# Vim

Cheatsheet

## Preliminaries

• I use neovim. My configuration is here. There, I map <esc> to jk, a mapping I also use throughout this file.

• I’ve remaped Caps Look to <ctrl> on my mac.

## Reminders

• Use one keystroke to move and one to execute (e.g. the dot-formula).

• Exit and re-enter insert mode strategically to chunk your undos (all changes in a single insert session count as one change).

• If you hit cursor keys more than 2 or 3 times, press backspace more than a couple times, perform the same change on several lines, there is a better way.

• I want to open a file and get an E325: ATTENTION Found a swap file warning. What happened? For me, it’s most likely that I accidentally closed a terminal window while still editing the file. What to do? First, check that I’m not already editing the file elsewhere. Second, recover the file, save it under a new name (:w filename2), force quit the session, compare the original and the new file (diff filename filename2), use the file with the content I need and delete the other one and the swap file. (Based on this great SE answer.)

• Don’t solve a problem unless you come across it frequently (and if you do, check whether one of Tim Pope’s plugins solves it).

Useful stuff I tend to forget:

Command Effect
<C-f>/<C-b> Scroll down/up screen-wise (“forwards-backwards”)
c-x c-e In command line: edit current line in vim, run after quit
:x Like :wq but only write if file was changed
set: {option}? Show present setting for {option}
set: {option}& Set option back to default value
| Command separator (equivalent to ; in shell)
<c-k>-N Enter en dash in insert mode using digraphs
<c-o-o> After opening vim, opens last file with cursor at last
edit

## Help

Command Effect
gO Show table of contents for current help file
:helpc[lose] Close help windows if any are open
:vert h {keyword} Open help in a vertical split

## Modes

### Normal mode

• Operators work as follows: operator + motion = action. E.g. dl deletes character to the right, diw the word under the cursor (without the surrounding whitespace), dap the current paragraph (including the surrounding whitespace). Similarly, gUap converts the current paragraph to uppercase.

Common operators:

Trigger Effect
c Change
d Delete into register
y Yank into register
p Paste after cursor
P Paste before cursor
~ Swap case of character under cursor and move right
gu Make lowercase
gU Make uppercase
g~ Swap case
> Shift right
< Shift left
= Autoindent
! Filter {motion} lines through an external program

Moving back and forth:

Forwards Backwards Effect
/ ? Seach for pattern
* # Search for word under cursor
n N Jump to next search match
$ ^ Jump to end of line a{char} F{char} Position cursor on character t{char} T{char} Position cursor before character ; , Repeat the last r, F, t, or T w b Move to the start of the next word W B Move to the start of the next WORD } { Move down one (blank-line-separated) paragraph gg Jump to the first line of the document G Jump to the last line of the document Act, repeat, reverse: Intent Act Repeat Reverse Make a change {edit} . u Scan line for next character f{char}/t{char} ; , Scan line for previous character F{char}/T{char} ; , Scan document for next match /pattern<CR> n N Scan document for previous match ?pattern<CR> n N Perform substitution :s/old/new & u Execute a sequence of changes qx{change}q @x u Compound commands: Compound command Equivalent in longhand C c$ (delete from cursor until end of line and start insert)
D d$ (delete from cursor until end of line) Y y$ (similar to above, but has to be mapped, see h: Y)
s cl (delete single character and start insert)
S ^c (delete entire line and start inster, synonym for cc)
x dl (delete one character to the right)
X dh (delete one character to the left)
I ^i (jump to beginning of line and start insert)
A $a (jumpt to end of line and start insert) o A<cr> O ko Miscellaneous: Command Effect <C-a>/ <C-x> Add / subtract from the next number <C-o>/ <C-i> Move backwards to last / forward to previous location u/<C-r> Undo / redo change ga Reveal numeric representation of character under cursor gx Open url under cursor <C-z>/fg Put vim in background / return to vim ### Insert mode Entering insert mode: Trigger Effect i Insert before cursor a Insert after cursor I Insert at beginning of current line A Insert at end of current line o Insert in a new line below the current one O Insert in a new line above the current one gi Insert at the end of last insert Useful commands: Keystroke action <c-h> delete back one character (backspace) <c-w> delete back one word <c-u> delete back one line <c-o> Enter insert normal mode to execute a single normal cmd <C-r>{register} Paste content from address (use 0 for last yanked text) <C-r>= Perform calculation in place r, R Enter replace mode for single replacement or until exit <C-v>{123} Insert character by decimal code <C-v>u{1234} Insert character by hexadecimal code <C-v>{char1}{char2} Insert character by digraph ### Visual mode • Once in visual mode, you can use any normal mode movement command to specify the area to be selected. Reminder to myself: use search more often for this. Command Effect v Enter character-wise visual mode / back to normal mode V Enter line-wise visual mode / back to normal mode <C-v> Enter block-wise visual mode / back to normal mode gv Reselect last visual selection o Toggle the free end of a selection ### Command-line mode • Ex-commands allow you to make changes (in multiple places) anywhere in the file without moving the cursor – “they strike far and wide”. • The general syntax is :[range]{command}, where [range] is either a single address or a range of addresses of the form {start},{stop}. There are three types of addresses: line numbers, visual selections, and patterns. • To execute a command on all selected lines, use visual mode to make the selection and press :. This will start the command prompt with '<, '>:, to which you can then add the command. • You can also specify offsets. For example, :/<tag>/+1<\/tag>/-1{cmd} would operate on the lines inside the html tag but not the lines containing the tag marks. Command mode commands: Command Effect :, /, ? Opens command line / search /reverse search mode <C-r><C-w> Insert word under cursor in command prompt <left>/<right> Move one character left or right <S-left> Move one word left (similar for right) <C-b>/<C-e> Move to the beginning/end of the command <C-w> Delete last word <C-u> Delete from cursor to beginning of line Types of addresses: Command Effect :4{cmd} execute command on line 4 :4,8{cmd} execute command on lines 4 to 8 (inclusive) :/#/{cmd} execute command on next line with an # :/<tag>/<\/tag>/{cmd} Execute command on next occurring html tag :'<,'>{cmd} Execute command on selected lines Useful address/range characters: Symobol Address 1 First line of the file $ Last line of the file
0 Virtual line above first line (e.g. to paste to top of file)
. Line of cursor
'm Line containing mark m
'< Start of visual selection
'> End of visual selection
% The entire file (short for :1,$) Common Ex-commands: Command Effect p[rint] Print d[elete] Delete j[oin] Join lines s[ubstitute] Substitute (e.g. s/old/new) n[ormal] Execute normal mode command m[ove] Move to {address}, (e.g. :1,5m$ moves lines to end of file)
co[py] (or t) Copy to {address}, (e.g. :6t. copies line 6 to current line)

Exercises:

1. Wrap all elements in the first column of a table in quotes.

2. Replace the word under the cursor throughout the file.

3. Open help for word under the cursor.

Solutions:

1. With cursor on word in first row: :{start},{stop}normal ysaW'.

2. *,cw{change}jk, :%s//<C-r><C-w>/<options>.

3. :h <C-r><C-w><CR>.

## Quickfix List

• The quickfix list is a special mode to speed up the edit-compile-edit cycle. But it can be used more generally to find a list of positions in files (e.g. list could hold search matches from running :vimgrep).

• The Location list is a local version of the quickfix list that is bound to the currently active window. There can be as many local lists as there are windows, while there is only a single globally available quickfix list.

Command Effect
:make [target] Compile target (and jump to first error if there are some)
:make! [target] Compile target without jumping to first error
:copen Open quickfix window
:cclose Close quickfix window
]q / [q Jump to next/previous match (uses vim-unimpaired plugin)

## Files

Setting the working directory:

Command Effect
:pwd Show current directory window
:cd Set directory for all windows
:cd - Revert back to previous directory
:lcd Set directory for current window
:tcd Set directory for current tab

### Buffers

• A buffer is an in-memory representation of a file.

• A hidden buffer is one that contains changes you haven’t written to disk yet but switched away from. For a session with hidden buffers, quitting will raise error messages, and vim will automatically display the first hidden buffer. You now have the following options: :w[rite] to write the buffer’s content to disk, :e[dit]! to reread the file from disk and thus revert all changes made, :qa[ll]! to discard all changes, and :wa[ll] to write all modified buffers to disk.

• :bufdo executes an Ex command in all open buffers, :argo in all grouped ones (e.g. :argdo %s/hello/world/g substitutes world for hello in all buffers in :args, :argdo edit! reverts all changes, and :argdo update writes changed buffers to disk.

• :[range]bd deletes buffers in range, with [range] working as for other Ex-commands (see above).

Command Effect
:x[it] / exi[t] Like :wq but only write if file was changed
:xa Write all changed buffers and exit (like :wqa)

vim-eunuch commands:

Command Effect
Move[!] {file} Like :saveas, but deletes old file
Rename[!] {file} Rename current buffer and file
Chmod {mode} Change permissions of current file
Mkdir {dir} Create dir with mkdir()
Mkdir! {dir} Create dir with mkdir() with “p” argument (mkdir -p)

Toggle buffer settings from vim-unimpaired:

Command Effect
yoh Toggle search highlighting
yob Toggle light background
yoc Toggle cursor line highlighting
yon Toggle line numbers
yor Toggle relative line numbers
yos Toggle the spell checker

### Windows

• A window is a viewport onto a buffer.

• We can open different windows that all provide a (different) view onto the same buffer, or load multiple buffers into one window.

Command Effect
<C-w>w Go to next window
<C-w>s Split window horizontally
<C-w>v Split window vertically
:sp[lit] {file} Horizontally split window and load {file} into new buffer
:vsp[lit] {file} Vertically split window and load {file} into new buffer
:new Split horizontally with new file
:vne[w] Split vertically with new file
on[ly] Close all but current window
<C-w>= Equalize width and height of all windows
<C-w>r Rorate windows
<C-w>x Exchange position of current window with its neighbour
q[uit] Close current window
:sb[uffer] Open buffer number N in horizontal split
:vert sb N Open buffer number N in vertical split (<leader>vb)

### Tabs

• A tab is a container of windows.
Command Effect
:tabe[dit]{file} Open new tab with {file} if specified or empty otherwise
:[count]tabnew Open a new tab in an empty window.
<C-w>T Move current window into new tab
:tabc[lose] Close current tab with all its windows
:tabo[nly] Close all tabs but the current one
{N}gt Go to tab {N} if specified, or to next otherwise
gT Go to previous tab

Handy [count] options for tabnew:

Count Opens new tab …
[.] … after current one
- … before current one
0 … before first one
$ … after last one ### Opening files • I use command-t to fuzzy-find files, which is what I use most of the time when working inside a project. I used ctrl-p before and prefer some of the mappings, hence my repammings. • To navigate file trees, I use netrw and vinegar. • Deleting folders: netrw uses delete() with the d flat to delete directories. As explained in :h delete(), this only removes empty directories. I leave this default for now. • To easily open a new file from the same directory as the current buffer in a new window/split/vertical split/tab I use the mappings <leader>ew/es/ev/et, following this Vimcast. command-t commands: Command Effect <c-o> Open or close command-t <c-i> Open command-t for open buffers <c-f> Flush path cash and rescan directory <c-v> Open file in vertical split netrw commands: Command Effect e[dit]. Open file explorer for current working directory E[xplore] Open file explorer for the directory of active buffer % Open new file in current directory d Create new directory in current one R Rename file or directory under cursor D Delete file or directory under cursor gh Toggle hiding dot-files :Ve Open explorer in vertical split :Rex Exit/return to explorer <c-l> Refresh listing • Motions move within a file, jumps between files. • Each motion can be prepended by a count (5l moves five characters to the right). ### Within files General: Command Effect <C-g> Shows current filepath and line number zz Redraw current line in middle of window zt Redraw current line at top of window Left-right and up-down: • You can use search after an operator to great effect. For instance: typing d/to <CR> when the cursor is at the beginning of “after” in the previous sentence turns it into “You can use search to greate effect”. This works because d is an exclusive operator (h: exclusive) and doesn’t apply the operation on the endpoint of the selection. • I use vim-smoothie for smoother screening behaviour of half-screen and screen-wise scrolling. Command Effect h/l Move left/right j/k Down/up one line (think of j as a down arrow) gj/gk Down/up by display rather than real lines 0/^/$ To first non-blank/first/last character of line
G Goto line [count], default is last line
gg Goto line [count], default is first line
f{char}/F{char} To next occurrence of {char} to the right/left
t{char}/T{char} Till (before) next occurrence of {char} to the right/left
H/M/L Jump to the top/middle/bottom of the screen
<C-e>/<C-y> Scroll down/up linewise
<C-d>/<C-u> Scroll down/up half-screen-wise (“down-up”)
<C-f>/<C-b> Scroll down/up screen-wise (“forwards-backwards”)

Words:

Command Effect
w/e Forward to start/end of current or next word
b/ge Backward to start/end of current or previous word
W, E, B Move WORD rather than word wise

Text objects:

• Text objects come in two types: those within a pair of delimiters (e.g. text inside parentheses) and chucks of text (Vim calls them “block” and “non-block” objects).

• They can be moved over or selected.

• Text object selection start with i (“inner sentence”) or a (“a sentence”). For example: vi) highlights text inside parentheses but not the parentheses themselves, while va) highlights the parentheses as well.

Command Effect
)/( Move [count] sentences forward/backward
}/{ Move [count] paragraphs forward/backward
Command Select inside or around…
w/W word/WORD
s sentence
p paragraph
] a [] block
) or b a () block
} or B a {} block
< a <> block
t a tag block

Marks:

Command Effect
m{a-zA-Z} Set lowercase (local) or uppercase (global) mark
{mark} Jump to mark
double-backquote Go to position before last jump
. Go to position of last change
% Go to matching bracket

### Between files

• A jump is a long-range motion (which, roughly, means moving faster than WORD-wise).

Traversing the jumps and changes lists

Command Effect
:jumps Show the jump list
<C-o>/<C-i> Traverse jump history backwards/forwards
:changes Show the change list
g;/g, Traverse change list backwards/forwards
gf Jump to file under cursor
<C-]> Jump to definition of keyword under cursor

### Back and forth

• Vim-unimpaired provides a set of normal mode commands to move between next (]) and previous ([), toggle options, and special pasting. Some commands I use often are listed below. The mnemonic is that ] is next in general and “next line” here, and lowercase navigates one by one while lowercase jumpts to first or last (e.g. [b moves to previous buffer, [B jumps to first one).
Command Effect
]<space>/[<space> Add [count] blank lines below/above the cursor
]e/[e Exchanges the current line with the one below/above

## Registers

### Copy and paste

• A register is a container that holds text. By default, Vim deletes, yanks and puts to and from the unnamed register ". We can set the register with which a command interacts by prepending the command with "{register}{cmd} (e.g. to explicitly state that we want to delete the current line to the unnamed register, we’d use ""dd; to put the just copied text, ""p. But these are equivalent to dd and p, so we’d probably not do that.) However, the default register will always contains the content from the last command, even if an additional register was specified.

• Transposing characters and lines: to correct “Thi sis”, starting from the last letter, use F<space>xp; to swap the current with the subsequent line, use ddp. As an alternative to ddp, which is useful to move lines up and down more flexibly, use ]e from vim-unimpaired (see below).

• Expression register: when we fetch the content of the expression register, Vim drops into command-line mode with a = prompt. When we enter Vim script and press <CR>, Vim will coerce the result into a string if possible and use it.

Command Effect
"{reg}{cmd} Make {cmd} interact with register {reg}
"" The unnamed register (redundant, as it’s the default)
"0 The yank register
"_ The black hole register (nothing returns from it)
"{a-z} Named registers (replace with {a-z}, append with {A-Z})
"+ The system clipboard
"% Name of current file (e.g. "%p)
"# Name of alternate file
". Last inserted text
": Last Ex command
"/ Last search pattern
:reg[ister] [reg] List content of registers reg, all by default
<C-r>{reg} Paste content of {reg} in insert mode

Useful patterns:

• Replace firstword with secondword. Solution 1: cursor at beginning of secondword; ye; bb; ve; p. Solution 2: cursor at beginning of secondword; ye; bb; cw; <C-r>0. Has advantage that . now replaces current word with firstword.

• Swap firstword and secondword. Solution: cursor at beginning of firstword; de; mm; ww; ve; p; m; P. Explanation: this exploits a quirk in the behaviour or p in visual mode. When we paste in visual mode, we put the content of the default register in place of the highlighted text, and the highlighted text into the default register.

• Complete the statement 27 * 45 = x. Solution: cursor at x and in insert mode; <C-r>=27*45<CR>.

### Macros

• Macros can be executed in sequence (e.g. 22@a) or in parallel ([range]:normal @a). The former can be useful as it aborts on failure, which could be what we want (e.g. replace all search results and stop once none are left). But if it’s not, then the latter approach is more useful (e.g. if you want to perform a change on all list items but not on other lines).
Command Effect
q{a-z} Start recording macro to register
q End recording
[count]@{a-z} Invoke macro in register [count] times
@@ Replay last invoked macro
q{A-Z} Append to macro (e.g. if I forgot something)

Exercises:

1. In the below block of code, prepend *var * and append ; to each line.
foo = 1
bar = 2
baz = 3

1. Edit macro q by prepending it with a ^ using a) yanking and b) visual editing (based on this useful post).

2. Macro q hits its target with n; invoke it quickly for all 12 search results in the document.

3. In the list below, change . to ) and words to title case.

a. ho
b. hi
c. he

1. Make the reverse changes in the list below
a) Ho
b) Hi
// a comment
c) He

1. Turn the below lines into a numbered list.
- first
- second
- third

1. Turn the below list into a numbered list.
- This is the first bullet - stretching over multiple lines. Well, actually, it didn't, but now it does.
- The second bullet is long, too. Again, it wasn't really, but now it is, so we can actually simulate what would happen.
- The third one is short.
- The fourth and final one is long.


Solutions:

1. With the cursor anywhere on the first line, start recording and perform the change on the first line, then either repeat it (a) sequentially or (b) in parallel. qq, Ivar<esc>A;<esc>j, (a) 2@q, (b) Vj:normal@q.

2. a) Paste the macro content into the buffer and edit it: "qpI^<esc>, yank it back into the q register: "qyy, clean macro from the buffer dd. b) Redefine the macro content directly using let command by opening the register :let @q=', pasting the current contents <c-r><c-r>q, adding ^ at the beginning, and adding ' and press enter to close the quote and finish editing the macro.

3. 22@q. Explanation: Because q uses n to hit its targets, it will automatically abort once there are no more results. We can thus avoid counting matches and simply use a number that’s comfortably above the number of matches. 22 is convenient because, on my keyboard, it’s the same key as @.

4. Start with cursor anywhere on first line of list, record macro: qq0f.r)w~jq, replay macro: 22@q.

5. Start with cursor anywhere on first line of list, record macro: qq0f.r)w~q, replay macro: V}:normal @q. Discussion: Executing the macro in series as in the previous exercise would abort at the line of the comment, so we need to execute it in parallel. As a result, there is no need to move to next line after performing the changes.

6. Start anywhere on the first line, then instantiate the counter: :let i=1, record the changes: qq0s<C-r>=i<CR>)<Esc>, advance the counter: let i+=1, stop recording: q and replay: jVj:normal @q.

7. My best solution thus far: We need a few preparation steps before we can execute the macro; first, select and then deselect the area within which you want to replace list item markers (e.g. vap, jk). Second, search for all list item markers inside that area using /\%V\_^-, where the \%V atom restricts the search to the previous selection, the \_^ atom matches start-of-line, and - matches the hyphens used as list item markers. Finally, initialise the counter using :let i=1. To record the marco, move the curser to before the first hypen in the list, then record the motions to the q register qq, move to the first hypehn and replace it while entering insert mode ncw, replace it with the counter and add a dot and exit insert mode <c-r>=i<cr>.jk, and increment the counter and stop the recording :let i=i+1q. Now, you can simply replay the recording in sequence 22@q and, if needed, reformat the area gvgq. (I use 22 to replay the macro for convenience as on my keyboard, 2 is the same key as the @ symbol, but any number at least as large as the number of remaining hyphens to be replaced would do).

## Patterns

### Matching patterns and literals

• In my .vimrc, I use set: ignorecase and set: smartcase to set the default search to be case insensitive except when I use an uppercase character in my pattern.

• You can use pattern swtiches anywhere in the search pattern.

• Use \v for regex search, \V for verbatim search.

Command Effect
\c Force case insensitive search
\C Force case sensitive search
\v (very magic) All characters assume special meaning (regex-like search)
\V (very nomagic) No character but “" has special meaning (verbatim search)
() Capture matched pattern inside and store in numbered silo
% When before (), don’t capture submatch
</> Word boundaries when used with \v switch
\zs/\ze Start and end of match

Useful patterns:

• Find the but not words it is a part of (e.g. these). Solution: /\v<the><CR>.

• In a CSS file, find all hex colour codes. Solution: /\v#(\x{6}|\x{3}). Explanation: use \v for regex search and \x to capture hexadecimal characters (equivalent to [0-9a-fA-F]).

• Find “a.k.a.” in a file. Solution: /\Va.k.a.. Explanation: we need \V or else . matches any character and we’d also find words like “backwards”.

• Check for words that occurr twice in a row. Solution: /\v<(\w+)\_s+\1>. Explanation: (\w+) captures any word, \_s matches a linebreak or a space (see h: /\_), \1 is the reference to the previously captured word, and <,> ensure that only two occurrences of the same word get matched and not also patterns like “n” in “in nord”.

• Reverse the order of all occurrences of Fab Gunzinger and Fabian Gunzinger. Solution: /\v(Fa%(b|bian)) (Gunzinger); :%s//\2, \1/g. Explanation: the first bit captures the short and full version of my first name, and my last name, without capturing the b or bian fragments. First and last name can now be references using \1 and \2, respectively. The substitution command finds the last search pattern (since we leave pattern blank) and replaces it with my first and last names reversed.

• Find all occurences of “Vim” that are part of “Practical Vim”. Solution: /Practical \zsVim<CR>.

• Find all quoted text. Solution: /\v"\zs[^"]+\ze". Explanation: "[^"]+" matches quotes followed by one or more occurances of anything but quotes followed by quotes (this is a useful regex idiom). \zs and \ze exclude the quotes from the match. Note: this only recognises quoted text on the same line. Note: doesn’t work over multiple lines.

• Find http://someurl.com/search?=\//. Solution: Yank pattern into a register, u for url, say; /\V<C-r>=escape(@u, getcmdtype().'\')<CR>. Explanation: see tip 79 in PV.

Exercises:

• In music amuse fuse refuse replace us with az in amuse and fuse using the substitute command (the point is to practice substitution in a limited area within a line).

Solutions:

• Use to the a at the beginning of amuse, then use vee to select the two words needed, jk (my mapping for <esc>) to leave visual mode, and :s/\%Vus/az/g to make the substitution in the last selected area: the \%V atom is what restricts the substitution to the last selected area.

#### Within a file

Command Effect
/<CR> Search previous pattern forward
?<CR> Search previous pattern backwards
/<UP> Access search history (similar for backward search)
<C-r><C-w> Autocomplete search field based on preview match
/{pattern}/e<CR> Use search offset to jump to end of match (h:
search-offset for more offset options)
gn Operate on a complete search match

Exercises:

1. In the paragraph below, replace all occurrences of “lang” or “langs” with “language” or “languages”.
learn a lang each year
which lang did you learn?
which lang will you learn?
how many langs do you know?

1. Now repeat the above, but start out by searching without using the search offset to jump to the end of the word and then make use of it midway through my search.

2. Search for the line below each occurrence of “lang”.

3. Replace all occurrences of “PyCode” and “PythonCode” with “PYCode” or “PYTHONCode”.

Solutions:

1. /lang/<CR>; ea; uage; n.. Explanation: the second / denotes teh end of the pattern, so from then on we’re back in command line mode.

2. Use //e<CR> to repeat the previous search pattern but with search offset used.

3. /lang/+1. Explanation: +# in search offset positions the cursor # lines after the match.

4. /\vPy(thon)?\C<CR>; gUgn; .. Explanation: gn applies the pending operator (gU in this case) to the current match or, if the cursor isn’t on a match, on the next one. After executing gUgn for the first time, the cursor changes the first match and remains there. Once we press ., the word under the cursor no longer is a match, so Vim jumps to the next match and applies the pending gU operator. Drew Neil calls this the “Improved dot-formula”, since we can use . to achieve n..

#### Across files

• There are many options for this. I currently use vim-ripgrep. The basic syntax is :Rg <string|pattern>, with <string|pattern> defaulting to the word under the cursor.

• Vim will ist the results in the quickfix window and jump to the first entry in the window.

Exercises:

1. Find all files that contain the line import s3fs in (a) the current directory and (b) in the subdirectory /data.

Solutions:

1. (a) :Rg 'import s3fs, (b) :Rg 'import s3fs' data/.

### Substitution

• Full syntax is :[range]s[ubstitute]/{pattern}/{string}/[flags]

• For substitutions across files I use quickfix-reflector, which allows for editing the quickfix window, and performs the changes made there in all files.

Flags:

Command Effect
g Substitute all matches on line (global)
c Confirm substitution
n Count number of matches instead of substitution
& Reuse flags from previous substitution

Replacement strings:

Command Effect
\1 Insert first submatch (similar for {1-9})
\0/& Insert entire matched pattern
~ Use string from previous substitution
\={vim scrip} Evaluate vim-script expression

Useful commands

Command Effect
:& Rerun last substitution (flags aren’t remembered)
:&& Rerun last substitution and reuse flags
:g& Rerun last search globally

Exercise:

1. Replace import helpers.aws as ha with from helpers import aws in all files in the current directory.

2. Decouple pattern matching and substitution (useful for complex patterns that require trial and error).

3. Use last search pattern in substitute command.

4. Substitute the highlighted text fragment.

5. Rerun the last line-wise substitution globally.

6. In a file with columns “name”, “age”, “height”, change order to “height”, “name”, “age”.

7. Replace “Hello” in (and only in) “Hello World” with “Hi” in all files in my project.

Solutions:

1. Find all files and open the quickfix window :Rg 'import helpers.aws as ha', perform the change in each file inside the quickfix window and save.

2. /{pattern} until you get it right (maybe use q/), then :s//{string}. Explanation: leaving {pattern} blank uses last search pattern.

3. :s/<C-r>//{string}

4. *:s//{string}. Explanation: with vim visual star plugin installed, * searches for pattern highlighted in visual mode.

5. g&.

6. /\v^([^,]), ([^,]), ([^,])$; :%s//\3, \1, \2. 7. First, test pattern in current buffer: /Hello\ze World<CR>, then search all files in project and populate quickfix list with files that have a match: :vimgrep // **/*.txt, finally: iterate through the files in the quickfix list to execute the substitute and update commands: :cfdo %s//Hi/gc | update ### Global commands • Full syntax: :[range] global[!] /{pattern}/ {cmd}. Range defaults to the entire file, leaving the pattern empty uses last search pattern, and command defaults to print. • A generalised version of the command, useful to operate inside text or code blocks, is :g/{start} .,{finish} [cmd], which applies the command to each range of lines that begins with {start} and ends with {finish}. See CSS sorting example below. Command Effect g[lobal] Global command v[global] Invert global g[lobal]! Invert global Exercises: 1. Delete all lines that contain “Hi”. 2. Keep only lines that contain “Hi”. 3. Print all lines that contain “Hi”. 4. Yank all lines that contain “TODO” into register a. 5. Glance at markdown file structure (create a table of contents). 6. Glance at top-level markdown titles. 7. Glance at markdown top and secondary level titles. 8. Alphabetically sort properties inside each rule of a CSS file. Solutions: 1. :g/Hi/d. 2. :v/Hi/d. 3. :g/Hi. 4. qaq (to empty register); :g/TODO/yank A. Explanation: need capital A to append to rather than overwrite register. 5. g/^#. 6. :g/^#  7. :g/\v^#(#)? . Explanation: Need \v so that parentheses have magic characteristics (otherwise I’d have to escape them, which is cumbersome), need ? 8. :g/{/ .+1,/}/-1 sort. Explanation: /{/ is the pattern of the global command and searches for all lines that contain an {. .+1,/}/-1 is the range of the Ex command, specified as from the current line until the next line that contains a closing curly bracket. The offsets narrow the range to exclude the lines with curly brackets. The current line address here stands for each line in turn that matches the /{/ pattern. ## Folds Command Effect zR Open all folds zM Close all folds <leader><space> Toggle fold under cursor (mapping of za) ## Mappings • General syntax: {cmd} {attr} {lhs} {rhs}. • Mapping process: define the sequence of keys to be mapped, decide the editing mode in which the mapping will work, find a suitable and free key sequence. • Understanding noremap mappings: by default, vim mappings are recursive (i.e. if a is mapped to b and b to c, then a is really mapped to c because b will be expanded on the rhs. The second mapping could be part of a plugin so that I’m not even aware of it). This behaviour is set with the remap option. To define non-recursive mappings, we can use the noremap mappings. Command Effect :nmap {char} List all normal mode mappings starting with {char} :verbose nmap {char} As above, but shows location where maps are defined ## Editing ### Autocompletion Command Effect <C-n>/<C-p> Trigger autocompletion and navigate <C-e> Dismiss autocomplete window <C-n><C-p> Filter suggestions as we type <C-x><C-k> Dictionary lookup (requires spellchecker on - yos) <C-x><C-l> Autocomplete entire line <C-x><C-f> Autocomplete filename (relative to pwd) I’ve experimented with youcompleteme, which I deleted again because its too clunky for my taste. In case I want to install again in the future, this might be helpful: Often doesn’t work with Anaconda Python, and I seem to be one of those cases. Followed the suggestion in the link. I first tried compiling with /usr/bin/python3, but this didn’t work. I then tried /usr/local/bin/python3.9, following this, which seems to have worked. ### Spell checking Command Effect yos Toggle spell checker (uses vim-unimpaired) ]s/[s Jump to next/previous misspelled word z= Suggest corrections [n]z= Correct word with nth suggestion zg Add current word to spell file (mnem: “good”) zw Remove current word from spell file (mnem: “wrong”) zug Revert zg or zw command for current word ### Formatting Command Effect gq{motion} Formats text, defaults to wrapping long lines. ### Case coercion Uses vim-abolish, which deals with word variants and provides powerful searching, grepping, substitution and case coercion. Command Effect crs Coerce to snake_case crc Coerce to camelCase crm Coerce to MixedCase cru Coerce to UPPER_CASE cr- Coerce to dash-case cr. Coerce to dot.case cr<space> Coerce to space case crt Coerce to Title Case Exercises: 1. Replace all occurrences of child[ren] with adult[s]. 2. Replace all occurrences of man with dog and vice versa. Solutions: 1. :%S/child{,ren}/adult{,s}/g 2. :%S/{man,dog}/{dog,man}/g. Discussion: Don’t use whitespace after comma, as Vim would treat it as part of the search/replacement pattern. ### Comments Uses vim-commentary Main commands: • gc{motion} • gcc • {Visual}gc • :[range]Commentary ## Language and program specific settings ### Git • I use basic commands from vim-fugitive ### Python • Execute makefiles using :make (Set up quicklist such that I can jump to errors directly, this currently doesn’t work. Probably requires some additional setup to recognise Python errors.) • I use Ctags to navigate my codebase. I’ve followed Tim Pope’s approach to set this up. For newly initialised or cloned directories, this setup automatically creates hooks and indexes the code with Ctags. For existing directories, you need to run git init to copy the hook templates into the local .git/hooks, and then git ctags to index the code. Ctag commands: Command Effect <C-]> Jump to definition of keyword under cursor g<C-]> As above, but select definition if there are multiple :tag {keyword} Jump to definition of keyword :tjump {keyword} As above, but select definition if there are multiple • Look into using matchit or something similar for faster code navigation. ### Latex • You can use <C-N> completion for words that already appear in one of the open buffers. This is especially useful for bibliography completion: just open the .bib file in another buffer and <C-N> will provide a list of available keys. • I use vimtex, with Skim as my viewer. In vimtex, most shortcuts use localleader, which, by default, is set to \. Vimtex commands: Command Effect \ll Toggle continuous compilation using latexmk \lk Kill compilation process \lc Clear auxiliary files \lt Show table of contents \ds{c/e/$/d} Delete surrounding command/environment/math env/delimiter
\cs{c/e/$/d} Change surrounding command/environment/math env/delimiter :VimtexDocPackage Show docs for argument under cursor or supplied package :VimtexCountWords Count words in document <C-x><C-o>/ Citation completion (inside \cite{) ]] To next section ]m To next environment ]n To next math zone ]r To next frame Vimtex text objects: Command Effect c Command d Delimiters (e.g. [, {) e Environment $ Inline math environment
P Sections
m Items

## Obscurities

• <plug> Allows authors of plugins to pre-map commands to so users can easily map them to their preferred keys. E.g. <plug>(test) might stand for a very long sequence of commands. To map that sequence to <leader>t, I can simply use nmap <leader>t <plug>(test). This SE answer explains it very clearly.

## Troubleshooting

### CSS indent not working

• Vim recognised css files, but used my global indent of 4 spaces rather than a file-type specific indent of 2 spaces.

• h: filetype notes that filetype detection files are located in the runtime path. Going there, I found the ftplugins folder that contains the default file settings. Looking at css.vim makes clear that it doesn’t set any tabstop settings, which explains why the defaults were used.

• Googling something along the lines of “custom filetype indent vim” let me to this SO answer, which helpfully links to h: filetype-plugins. Once there, it was easy to find the relevant section, ftplugin-overrule that documents how to add custom filetype settings. This is what I did, and it worked like a charm.

## Sources

This cheat sheet started out as a summary of Drew Neil’s phenomenal Practical Vim, which I can’t recommend enough as a start to learning Vim seriously.

Other resources I found useful: